This course deals with the fundamentals of signals and systems analysis. Signals are all information that are detectable or measurable. It is a function representing some variable that contains some information about the behavior of a natural or artificial system. Signals are one part of the whole. Signals are meaningless without systems to interpret them, and systems are useless without signals to process.

A signal can be represented as a function x(t) of an independent variable t which usually represents time. If t is a continuous variable, x(t) is a continuous-time signal, and if t is a discrete variable, defined only at discrete values of t, then x(t) is a discrete-time signal. A discrete-time signal is often identified as a sequence of numbers, denoted by x[n], where n is an integer.

System is any physical set of components that takes a signal and produces a signal. In terms of engineering, the input is generally some electrical signal X, and the output is another electrical signal(response) Y. However, this may not always be the case. Consider a household thermostat, which takes input in the form of a knob or a switch, and in turn outputs electrical control signals for the furnace.

Note to the Students:
There will be 3 lecture classes and one tutorial every week. All students are requested to carry 2 notebooks, one for writing lecture notes and examples done in lecture classes and another for solving tutorial problems and home works. 


  • To understand the terminology of signals and basic engineering systems.
  • To make students able to give Fourier representation of a continuous-time signal.
  • To make students able to give Fourier representation of discrete time signal.
  • To Analyze Discrete systems using Z Transform.


At the end of the course, students will be able to:

  1. Analyze signals & use it effectively for their system.
  2. Construct continuous time signals in Fourier domain.
  3. Construct discrete time signals in Fourier domain.
  4. Formulate the z-transform for any system.